Biology Week 11

Day 1 | Day 2 | Day 3 | Lab | Weekly Quiz | Quizstar

  • Bacteria
  • Archaebacteria
  • Methanogens
  • Halophiles
  • Thermoacidophiles
  • Eubacteria
  • Escherichia coli
  • Cocci
  • Bacilli
  • Spirilli
  • Staphylo
  • Strepto
  • Obligate
  • Facultative
  • Aerobe
  • Anaerobe
  • Gram stain
  • Capsule
  • Pili
  • Flagella
  • Heterotrophic
  • Saprophyte
  • Autotrophic
  • Photoautotroph
  • Chemoautotroph
  • Cyanobacteria
  • Spirochete
  • Proteobacteria
  • Binary fission
  • Conjugation
  • Endospore
  • Toxin
  • Endotoxin
  • Exotoxin
  • Antibiotic
  • Penicillin
  • Tetracycline

Bacteria: single-cell organisms with no nucleus.

click to find the answer to today's question What does it mean if an organism is said to be autotrophic?

the typical bacteria cell showing all possible parts Since bacteria have no organells surrounded by a membrane, making them prokaryotic to a local webpage As the RNA of bacteria became better understood, scientists realized that there were two vastly different types of bacteria. These groups were so different that there are now two kingdoms of bacteria. Details about the diffferences in these two kingdoms of bacteria can be found in our current biology textbook.

The kingdom Archaebacteria is relatively small, consisting of three main phylogenetic groups.

the key points to useful information on this page
The kingdom Eubacteria contains the bacteria commonly referred to as germs. This kingdom contains most of the world's bacteria, divided into as many as 12 different phyla based on their evolutionary relationships. Representatives of this kingdom are the most widely distributed organisms known to man. While they are most abundant in temperate environments, (normal human body temperature is perfect for bacterial growth), some species are known to live in environments ranging from temperatures near the boiling point of water to well below the freezing point of water. The rod-shaped bacteria pictured below is Escherichia coli, a bacteria commonly found in the human digestive system.

Eubacteria are classified by: Escherichia coli Bacteria.  This bacteria is common in the human intestine. Three different shapes of bacteria.
  1. Shape:

    2. What is the shape of an anthrax cell?

  2. Clustering:

    3. Do anthrax cells form one of these cluster types?

  3. Respiration:

    4. What is the respiration type for anthrax cells?

  4. Gram Stain:

    5. Are anthrax cells gram-positive or gram-negative?

Parts of a bacteria cell: link to an Internet Website

  • Cell wall - some rigid and others flexible.
  • Cell membrane - same as other cells.
  • Cytoplasm - same as other cells.
  • DNA - a single, circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm. Remember, bacteria cells do not have a nucleus.
  • Capsule - a thick, gel-like, protective coating on some bacteria cells.
  • Pili - short, hairlike protein structures on the surface of some bacteria that help them stick to host cells.
  • Flagella - long protein structures that turn to propel some bacteria cells.

Day 1 Assignment - Bacteria
This assignment must be turned in by the end of class today to receive credit.
Scoring criterialink to a local webpage

  1. Strep throat is caused by streptococcus to an Internet Website When you go to the doctor with a sore throat, they swab your throat and have you wait for the results of the "culture" to see if you have strep throat. What does the "culture" look like if you have strep throat?
  2. Some bacterial infections are known as "staph infections". What does the name of this illness tell you about the bacteria?
  3. Not all bacteria cause infections in your body. Give an example of a bacteria that always lives inside your body.
  4. Use "Google"link to an Internet Website to search the Internet for Cyanidium caldarium. Describe the living conditions of this organism.
  5. Copy this bacteria picture and then label the parts. link to a local picture

Day 2

click to find the answer to today's question What is the scientific name of the bacteria
that aids human digestion?

Phyla of Eubacteria:

Reproduction: Toxins: substances that disrupts the metabolism of other organisms.


Day 2 Assignment - Bacteria
Scoring criteria
link to a local webpage

  1. The Centers for Disease Control has a scientific paper about bacterial to an Internet Website Do the following:
    1. The abstract of this paper is at the beginning. How many bacterial toxins are referred to in this paper?
    2. The introduction paragraph of the paper defines "bacterial toxins". Write that definition.
    3. Use Webster's Online Dictionarylink to an Internet Website to define the term deleterious.
    4. The conclusion, "summary", of this paper "restates" the three things that bacterial toxins do to harm other cells. Write those three things.
  2. Study antibiotic resistancelink to an Internet Website and answer the following questions:
    1. What is antibiotic resistance?
    2. Why should antibiotics not be used for most sore throats?
    3. What percent of all antibiotics manufactured in the U.S. are used on livestock?
    4. Besides preventing disease, for what other reason are livestock given antibiotics?

Day 3

click to find the answer to today's question What does the bacteria that causes strep throat look like?

Some Diseases Caused by Bacteria link to an Internet Website
Clostridium tetani Tetanus Muscle spasms; death possible
Rickettsia rickettsii Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Chills, fever, leg & joint pain
Salmonella sp. Food poisoning Nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea
Streptococcus sp. Strep throat Fever, sore throat, enlarged lymph glands

click for a career
19. How is the vaccine for anthrax made?
20. How does Ciprofloxacin® kill bacteria?
21. Before anthrax, how was Cipro® most commonly used?
22. What is the wholesale price per pill of Cipro® in the U.S.?
23. What is the danger of giving Cipro® to children?

Day 3 Assignment - Bacteria
This assignment must be turned in by the end of class today to receive credit.
Scoring criteria
link to a local webpage

  1. Some invading bacteria are easy for your immune system to kill, while others are very hard. There might be several reasons for this, but one reason is related to a particular cell partlink to a local webpage that most of the bacteria that are hard to kill have in common. What is this cell part and why does it make them hard for your body to kill them?
  2. The CDC has some good information about foodborne to an Internet Website
    1. What is the scientific name of the bacteria that causes botulism?
    2. What is the most common cause of foodborne botulism?
    3. The symptoms of botulism are all caused by the toxin released by this bacteria doing what to the body?
    4. How is botulism treated once a person has it?
    5. Why should children less than 12 months old never be given honey?

  3. Choose two types of bacteria, one that is helpful and one that is harmful, research them and give a brief summary on each explaining:
    1. Name of bacteria (common & scientific) include pyla of bacteria
    2. disease it causes or usefulness
    3. Origins
    4. shape type & description or parts (can use diagram)

Research Links:










An autotrophic organism can makes its own food.










Escherichia coli is a bacteria that lives in the human intestine and aids digestion.










The cells of the bacteria that cause strep throat are round and clump together in clusters.