Biology Week 12

Day 1 | Day 2 | Day 3 | Lab | Weekly Quiz | Quizstar

  • Fungi
  • Hypha
  • Septum
  • Chitin
  • Cellulose
  • Mycelium
  • Reproduction
  • Asexual
  • Spore
  • Fragmentation
  • Budding
  • Sexual
  • Parasite
  • Symbiosis
  • Ectomycorrhizal
  • Endomycorrhizal
  • Decomposers
  • Zygomycota
  • Basidiomycota
  • Ascomycota
  • Deuteromycota
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Lichen
  • Protist
  • Protozoa
  • Zooplankton
  • Sarcodina
  • Ciliophora
  • Zoomastigina
  • Sporozoa
  • Algae
  • Phytoplankton
  • Chlorophyta
  • Dinoflagellata
  • Eugelenophyta
  • Slime molds
  • Water molds

The Fungi

click to find the answer to today's question What causes bread dough to "rise"?

The Fungi Kingdomlink to an Internet Website contains molds, mildews, rusts, smuts, yeasts, and mushrooms. Most fungi are saprophytic or parasitic. The saprophytes are helpful because they break down organic material returning nutrients to the soil. Yeasts are useful in the making of bread and fermented drinks. Some parasitic fungi are actually human pathogens, causing athlete's foot and ringworm.

Important body parts: Mushroom Cap

  1. Hypha - the vegetative filament.

  2. Septum - perforated cross walls. (in some groups)

  3. Mycelium - a mat of interwoven hyphae.

Fungus life cycle: link to a local picture

The life cycle of a fungus begins as a spore (the reproductive body) that grows when conditions are right. Out of the spore wall grows a hypha, that looks like a clear, microscopic fingertip. The body of the fungus is made up of a network of hyphal threads collectively called the mycelium. The mycelium grows in soil or within dead wood or living organisms. When growing conditions are favorable, the mycelium develops fruiting bodies, appearing as what we recognize as mushrooms or as other forms. These fruiting bodies will produce the new spores.

Types of reproduction:

Fungi nutrition:

Unlike members of the plant kingdom that use chlorophyll to produce their own food, fungi do not have chlorophyll and must obtain their food from other sources.

Fungi obtain food in one, or a combination, of these three ways:

  • Fungi act as parasites and feed on living things, usually doing some degree of harm. Parasitic fungi use enzymes to break down tissues. Examples: the "Honey Mushroom" (Armillariella mellea) and the "Cauliflower Mushroom" (Sparassis crispa).
  • Fungi form a symbiosis (beneficial partnership) with other organisms such as trees and flowering plants:
    1. Ectomycorrhizal fungi grow thick coats of mycelia around the rootlets of trees and bring water and minerals from the soil into the roots. In return the host tree supplies the fungus with sugars, vitamins and other root substances. This relationship occurs in more than 90% of plants. Examples: the Bolete Family associated with many species of conifer trees, aspen and birch, and the "Dead Man's Foot" (Pisolithus tinctorius) which helps many plants grow.
    2. Endomycorrhizal fungi are microscopic soil fungi that penetrate the cells of plant roots. This relationship may be beneficial to both parties or may be harmful to the plant.
  • Fungi act as decomposers to decay dead plant and animal matter. These saprophytes act as recyclers of dead organic matter, obtaining food from this material. Hyphal tips release enzymes that eventually decompose and release organic materials into the surrounding environment. Saprophytic fungi appear on dead trees, logs, plant litter such as leaves, and even dead insects and animals. Examples: "Gem-studded Puffball" (Lycoperdon perlatum) and "Turkey Tail" (Trametes versicolor).

Day 1 Assignment - fungi
This assignment must be turned in by the end of class today to receive credit.
Scoring criterialink to a local webpage

  1. Name the main body parts of fungi.
  2. Search the internet and find a diagram of a fungus that you can label with the main body parts (hypha, septum, mycelium). Not just a mushroom reproductive structure. Paste the diagram here.
  3. Name several places that fungi can be found growing?
  4. Describe the different ways fungi can reproduce (summarize in your own words).
  5. Name the different ways fungi can obtain food (summarize in your own words).
  6. How do fungi form symbiotic relationships with other plants?
  7. What is meant when we call fungi "saprophytes"?
  8. Ringworm is a fungal infection of the skin. Use the research links at the bottom of this page to find information to write at least two paragraphs explaining the ringworm infection and how it is contracted (summarize in your own words).
  9. The mushroom genus Amanita contains extremely dangerous toxins, giving one the nickname "death angel" Amanita ocreata or "destroying angel". Use the research links at the bottom of this page to find information to write a paragraph explaining each of these things about the genus Amanita: (summarize in your own words).
    • The identifying traits of the genus (pictures & diagrams help)
    • The geographical range of the genus
    • The characteristic of the toxins found in the genus
  10. What type of scientists study fungi?

Day 2

click to find the answer to today's question Why are mushrooms dangerous to eat?

mold growing on an orange Fungi Classification, the Divisions (Phyla):

click for a career
Plant Pathologist
Mycorrhiza:link to an Internet Website

A symbiotic association between
a fungus and plant roots.

Over 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. The fungus absorbs and concentrates phosphates for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant during photosynthesis.

Lichens:link to an Internet Website a symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner, usually a cyanobacterium or green alga.

lichen diagram
  1. Upper Cortex: Short, thick hyphae pressed together to form a protective layer.

  2. Photosynthetic Layer: In most lichens, the algae are found in a single layer under the protective cortex.

  3. Pith: A loosely woven mat of hyphae holding moisture.

  4. Lower Cortex: Just like the upper cortex protecting the bottom of the group.

  5. Rhizomes: Bundles of hyphae anchoring the group.

Day 2 Assignment - fungi
This assignment must be turned in by the beginning of class tomorrow to receive credit.
Scoring criterialink to a local webpage

  1. Name the four Phyla of the kingdom Fungi. Give a brief description of each.
  2. How can we make toxic mushrooms nontoxic?
  3. What affects does the protoplasmic poison, Amatoxins have on humans? What mushrooms contain these types of poisons?
  4. What benefits do plants gain from mycorrihiza?
  5. What percent of plants have fungi associated with their roots?
  6. What is a Lichen? How does each benefit from the relationship? Give a description of its structure.
  7. Write at least two paragraphs explaining why lichens are important to the to an Internet Website
  8. Write a paragraph giving an example of the importance of fungi in food processing.

Research Links:










Yeasts digesting carbohydrates produce carbon dioxide as a waste product. This gas trapped in the dough causes it to expand - "rise".










All mushrooms produce chemicals that are toxic, while some of these toxins are much stronger than others.