Unit 3 Section 1 - Chordates, Vertebrates & Fish

Part a | Part b | Part c | Part d | Lab | Key terms | Review | Weekly Quiz | Quizstar

  1. Chordata
  2. Notochord
  3. Dorsal nerve chord
  4. Pharyngeal pouches
  5. Post-anal tail
  6. Cephalochordata
  7. Lancelets
  8. Urochordata
  9. Tunicates
  10. Vertebrata
  11. Vertebrates
  12. Axial skeleton
  13. Appendicular skeleton
  14. Pelvic girdle
  15. Pectoral girdle
  16. Agnatha
  17. Cartilage
  1. Chondrichthyes
  2. Placoid scales
  3. Osmoregulation
  4. Osteichthyes
  5. Integument
  6. Lobe-finned fish
  7. Coelacanth
  8. Lungfish
  9. Ray-finned fish
  10. Adipose fin
  11. Lateral line
  12. Chromatophores
  13. Operculum
  14. Swim bladder
  15. Heart
  16. Atrium
  1. Ventricle
  2. Arteries
  3. Veins
  4. Capillaries
  5. Brain
  6. Forebrain
  7. Olfactory lobes
  8. Cerebrum
  9. Midbrain
  10. Optic lobes
  11. Hindbrain
  12. Cerebellum
  13. Medulla oblongata
  14. Cranial nerves
  15. Spinal nerves
  16. Spawn
  17. Milt

The Chordates

click to find the answer to today's question What Arizona fish has a cartilage skeleton?

Characteristics of the Phylum Chordata:

All members of the Phylum Chordata have the following characteristics, at least at some time during their development. link to a local picture

Notochord
    A firm, flexible rod of specialized cells that becomes the endoskeleton in vertebrates.
Dorsal nerve cord
    A hollow tube above the notochord that becomes the spinal chord and brain in vertebrates:
Pharyngeal pouches
  • Out-pockets in the pharynx, the portion of the digestive tract between the mouth and the esophagus.
  • Become gill chambers and gills in aquatic chordates.
  • Become jaws, inner ear, and tonsils in terrestrial chordates.
Post-anal tail
  • A tail located posterior to the anal opening.

The Phylum Chordata link to an Internet Website includes all of the vertebrates, as well as two groups of marine animals that lack backbones and are therefore invertebrates. The phylum is divided into three subphyla, determined by the development of the notochord:

Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals

The Vertebrates

Characteristics of the Subphylum Vertebrata:


Of the 7 classes of vertebrates, three are fish.

See where fish fit into Earth's history. link to an Internet Website

1 - Class Agnathalink to a local webpage the jaw-less fish (lampreys and hagfish)

a lake trout with a sea lamprey

Class characteristics: link to an Internet Website link to an Internet Website


2 - Class Chondrichthyes link to an Internet Websitelink to an Internet Website the cartilage fish (sharks, rays, and skates)

shark drawing

Class characteristics: link to an Internet Website link to an Internet Website


These marine fish maintain homeostasis between salt and water in the body through a process called osmoregulation. link to an Internet Website


3.1a Assignment - Chordates, Vertebrates & Fish
  1. Open this diagram, chordate phylogenetic tree, and label the missing derived characteristics that define the major clades of chordates (your text might be helpful). (paste into assignment)
  2. List and describe the characteristics of the phylum Chordata?
  3. Are there any animals in the phylum chordata that are invertebrates? If yes give its common name..
  4. Open this diagram of  a lancelet (amphioxus) and label its parts (paste into assignment) . Which subphylum does this organism belong in? Explain your answer. How are these animals related to humans?
  5. Open this diagram of a Tunicate and label its parts (paste into assignment). Why is this organism included under the chordate phylum when it does not seem to have a notochord as an adult?
  6. Describe the characteristics that define the Subphylum Vertebrata.
  7. You remember that hind limbs attach to the pelvic girdle. What two families of snakes link to an Internet Website have a pelvic girdle?
  8. The human backbonelink to a local webpage is divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccyx vertebrae. How many vertebrae make up each of these parts?
  9. Name one species of lamprey. What phylum does it belong in? Why?
  10. Compare and contrast the characteristics for the classes agnatha and chondrichthyes.
  11. Right click on this(Vertebrate: fish & amphibians) and "save target as" to you desktop. After video has downloaded watch video both segments and complete the short quizzes at the end of each segment. Write your answer here.

     

Honors biology: complete this question along with the section above.

  1. Pick one representative animal from the class chondrichthyes, supply a picture and give a detailed description of the animals habitat, life cycle/reproduction, feeding habits/method, morphology, and if any, interactions with humans.


Unit 3 Section 1 part b

click to find the answer to today's question What native Arizona fish does not have a body covered with scales?

3 - Class Osteichthyes - the bony fish (95% of all fish are members of this class)

bony fish drawing

Class characteristics:

Bony skeleton
Integument (skin)
Scales
link to a local webpage

 
3.1b  Computer Assignment - Chordates, Vertebrates & Fish

  1. Use PowerPoint, word, or paint to make the following slide:
    1. Paste this fish diagram link to a local picture onto a slide.
    2. Add text to label all external part of the fish.
    3. Add small text to describe the motionlink to a local webpage produced by each type of fin.
  2. Make another slide with the following
    1. Paste this Fish diagram link to a local picture onto a slide.
    2. Add text to label all the internal parts
    3. Provide a short description of each part.
    4. Make sure to type your name, date, class period and assignment title on top

Honors section: complete both 1, 2 and 3

  1. Paste this fish picture link to a local picture onto a new PowerPoint slide.
    1. The following fish are represented on the picture:
      • channel catfish
      • orangethroat darter
      • tadpole madtom
      • quillback
      • blackspotted topminnow
      • bluegill
      • stickelback
      • black redhorse
      • blackside darter
      • spotfin shiner
    2. Use this fish key link to a local picture to identify the fish and place the correct name below each fish on your slide.


Unit 3 Section 1 part c

Information and today's assignment for bony fish.link to a local webpage


Unit 3 Section 1 part d

click to find the answer to today's question How are the toes of amphibians and reptiles different?

click for a career
Marine Biologist
Other classes of vertebrates:

Each of these class groups will be covered in the weeks to come. Links to the concept pages are provided below for you to gather information to answer these general questions about each class.


3.1d Assignment - Chordates, Vertebrates & Fish

  1. Use the links above to write a summary comparing the hearts of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals (diagrams help).
  2. Create a table that list the characteristics that define each of these classes: Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia
  3. In the same table list at least two representative animals for each class.
  4. Compare and contrast the characteristics of these classes:

    a. How are the amphibians different then the reptiles? How are they they same?

    b. Explain the differences between the reptiles and the Aves. Discuss their similarities.

    c. Explain the differences between the Aves and the Mammals. What similarities do they have?

    d.What characteristics do they all share? What characteristics are unique to each?

  5. Find one item that is very interesting about each of the classes and write about it here.
  6. Use these vertebrate keyslink to a local webpage to determine if the following statements are true or false.
    1. Bony fish in the Order Pleuronectiformes have an asymmetrical skull.
    2. Bony fish in the Order Syngnathiforme have a body covered with bony plates.
    3. Bony fish in the Order Gadiformes have no chin barbles.
    4. Amphibians in the Order Anura have tails as adults.
    5. Amphibians in the Suborder Salamandroidea have teeth in the roof of their mouth.
    6. Birds in the Order Ciconiiformes have adaptations for wading.
    7. Reptiles in the Suborder Lacertilia have a leathery shell.
    8. Turtles in the Family Testudinidae have plastron with 12 shields.
    9. Mammals in the Order Edentata have forelimbs modified into flippers.
  7. Right click on this(life science: reptiles) and "save target as" to you desktop. After video has downloaded watch video and answer the questions below.
    1. What does scale skin do for a reptile?
    2. How do snakes use scales?
    3. What has happened to scales in turtles?
    4. What does cold blooded animal mean?
    5. What are the largest predatory lizards?
    6. How many species of snakes exist in the world today?
    7. Explain how snakes use their tongues?
    8. Why do lizards have a hard time running for long periods of time?
    9. How long ago were the reptiles body plan established?
  8. Right click on this (life science: birds) and "save target as" to you desktop. After video has downloaded watch video and answer the following questions
    1. How have birds adapted to make flight easier?
    2. How many species of birds contain feathers?
    3. Why do some birds migrate at certain times of the year?
    4. How much do hummingbirds eat a day?
    5. What percent of Golden Eagle young survive?
    6. Which type of bird has the best hearing?
    7. What is the most colorful parrot?
    8. What type of bird has the best eyesight?
    9. How do vultures obtain food?

Honors biology: Complete the following in place of number 5 above.

  1. Choose one species of bird to highlight. Give the birds common and scientific name, how it has adapted to its environment, its habitat, physical characteristics and morphology, reproduction/life cycle, food sources, and any interesting facts. Include a picture of your bird.

Research Links: